The working principle of all atomizers is air flow and suction. When the horizontal air passes through the vertical pipe, it will pull the air and liquid in the vertical pipe upward. The classic atomizer uses a squeeze ball to store a large amount of air. When squeezed, the air moves quickly on the feed tube. There are two check valves at each end of the bulb. When the bulb is pressed down, the valve in the pipe leading to the bottle is forced to open by air pressure, and the valve leading to the outside is pulled to the closed position. When the bulb is released, the rubber inside restores it to its original shape, closes the valve to the pipe, and opens the valve to the outside so that air can fill the bulb.
The pump is the main working part of the spray bottle. The pump consists of a trigger mechanism, a piston, an oil cylinder and a one-way valve. When the user presses the trigger, it pushes the piston into the cylinder, thereby forcing the liquid as a stream of concentrated liquid through the nozzle. When the trigger is released, the piston moves backward, pulling the liquid back into the cylinder. The next time the trigger is pressed, the liquid will be squeezed out of the nozzle. The one-way valve at the bottom of the pump only allows liquid to flow up the pipe into the pump, and does not allow liquid to flow back into the bottle.
The nozzle is the end of a horizontal tube, usually made of metal or plastic. When air and liquid perfume pass through the nozzle, it breaks the perfume into droplets and mixes with the air. The throttling device at the end of the nozzle is called a "Venturi", which accelerates the mixing of air and liquid, causing the liquid to rupture and the air to disperse it widely. Depending on the degree to which the squeeze ball is squeezed, the amount of liquid and the distance it spreads will change.
Some nozzles have a built-in screen with many small holes on the screen to make the liquid appear in the form of mist. Some nozzles can be tightened to lock the bottle and prevent the liquid from leaking. Some spray bottles also have a wider part at the bottom of the tube to make it easier to absorb liquid. Sometimes, this wider tube end has a strainer so that solid matter will not be sucked into the tube.